In the early 21st century, white nationalists , alt-righters , and neo-Nazis have used the initialism JQ in order to refer to the Jewish question. The state abolishes, in its own way, distinctions of birth, social rank, education, occupation, when it declares that birth, social rank, education, occupation, are non-political distinctions, when it proclaims, without regard to these distinctions, that every member of the nation is an equal participant in national sovereignty, when it treats all elements of the real life of the nation from the standpoint of the state.
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Nevertheless, the state allows private property, education, occupation, to act in their way — i. Far from abolishing these real distinctions, the state only exists on the presupposition of their existence; it feels itself to be a political state and asserts its universality only in opposition to these elements of its being. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Debate in European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society. For the book, see The Jewish Question. For other uses, see Jewish Question disambiguation. Part of Jewish history Part of Discrimination.
Three Ds Working Definition of Antisemitism. Antisemitic canards.
Marx’s defence of Jewish emancipation and critique of the Jewish question
Antisemitic publications. Antisemitism on the Web. Boycotts Expulsions General Order No. Further information: History of the Jews in Europe. Archived from the original on 25 November Der Judenstaat [ The Jewish state ]. Sylvie d'Avigdor republication ed. New York: Courier Dover. Retrieved 28 September The Holocaust History Project. Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 25 March Schocken Books , p. Batoche Books. Breitenstein's Verlags-Buchhandlung.
Achim Gercke. The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath. Westview Press, Archived from the original on 19 March Archived from the original on 21 March Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State. Community Television of Southern California. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question.
Part of a series on. History Timeline Reference. Etymology Who is a Jew? Texts Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Mishnah Gemara. Midrash Tosefta. Population Judaism by country Lists of Jews Historical population comparisons. These are encapsulated in the debate culminating in the enfranchisement of Jews in , the "full citizenship" cited as one of the memorable achievements of the revolution. The first article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, proclaimed in August , pronounced all men "free and equal in rights"; the sixth declared "all citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law,.
Shortly after the declaration, the Constituent Assembly passed decrees distinguishing between "active" and "passive" citizens, only the former having the right to vote and bear arms. In addition to such criteria as age, residence, and taxes, the active citizen also had "to be or have become French. In January , a debate on the subject was closed by Mirabeau, a leading member of the assembly, who declared the Jew a citizen only if he was more a man, un homme , than a Jew. A Jew who was more a Jew than un homme could not be a citizen; indeed, anyone who did not want to become un homme should be banished from the new society created by the revolution.
The assembly concluded with a compromise provision. By a vote of to , the rights of active citizenship were granted to the three or four thousand Sephardi Jews, specified as "Portuguese, Spanish and Avignonnais Jews. When the issue came up again the following year, the question focused on the much larger number of Ashkenazi Jews settled mainly in Alsace-Lorraine, who were more conspicuously Jewish.
More religious than the Sephardi, less assimilated, and very much a community, the Ashkenazi were charged with being a "nation within a nation.
Count Clermont-Tonnerre, the deputy from Paris and the chief supporter of the motion, put the case most explicitly. Those Jews who wanted to be citizens had to "disavow their judges" and eliminate their "Jewish corporations. There can only be the individual citizen.
Thirty years later, after the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the subject reappeared, in another country, another context, and with another cast of characters. Responding to a surge of antisemitism in Germany, the most eminent philosopher of the time came to the defense of the Jews.
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Having earlier propounded a philosophy that made reason a very different reason from that of the philosophes entirely compatible with religion, Hegel now, in Philosophy of Right , argued for the enfranchisement of Jews as a matter of right. It is as if he had the French decree of in mind as he now insisted upon their full enfranchisement, as Jews as well as men. Even if they were regarded as a "religious sect" or "foreign race," this did not deny the fact that "they are, above all, men ," and as such each "a person with rights.
Two decades later, one of Hegel's former disciples, Bruno Bauer a left-wing Hegelian, as he is now known , turned against the master, reverting, in effect, to the French Enlightenment's disparaging view of religion in general and Judaism in particular.
But Bauer's essay was provocative enough on its own. Decrying all religion as illusory and pernicious, he declared Judaism to be the most degraded form of religion.
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Against those who defended Jews on the grounds that they had been oppressed and martyred, Bauer insisted that they had brought that condition upon themselves, provoking their enemies by their stubborn adherence to "their law, their language, their whole way of life. Since religion itself was a denial of citizenship, Jews could not claim citizenship unless they ceased being Jews. Marx's critique of Bauer the following year gave a new twist to the "Jewish Question. This was a dramatic finale to Marx's "Jewish Question.
In retrospect, however, Bauer's is really the more radical version, making Jewish identity—a religious, not merely social, identity—the primal source of antisemitism.