Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20 2 Half of them were in the Caribbean, Central America and South America; and this situation has remained similar in the subsequent years 21 Geneva Declaration of Armed Violence. Chapter three: Lethal violence against women and girls. In Brazil, feminine deaths by aggression grew from 2. Wailselfisz JJ.
The frequencies are higher in regions where there is high masculine death by aggression, showing that places that are violent for men are also violent for women 16 Ratton JL. In the s, various Latin American countries had prepared specific laws on homicide of women. Brazil passed a law on femicide in , which specifically includes the issue of gender as a legally distinguished circumstance 24 Lei This law has been in effect too short a time for a proper assessment, but the banalization of gender crimes indicates the need to monitor its application, so that there can be more efficient actions for prevention and punishment of these crimes 25 Pasinato W, coordenador.
As mortes violentas de mulheres. Class-based legal systems, and those that seek to avoid the issue of gender, tend to carry with them the implication that having laws does not necessarily mean they will be obeyed 13 Highlight theoretical terms to help in understanding and describing this phenomenon would include the concepts of necropolitics 26 Mbembe A.
Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Editorial Melusina; Sagot M. Un mundo sin femicidios? Las propuestas del feminismo para erradicar la violencia contra las mujeres In: Sagot M, coordenador. In Brazil, since the s, there have been accusations of a state of lawlessness, in certain territories where the black population has suffered heavily from homicides. These deaths are due to conflicts created by mafia-type groups, but also action of the police 28 Anistia Internacional.
O estado dos direitos humanos no mundo. Rio de Janeiro: Anistia Internacional do Brasil; In the countries where neoliberal policies have been put in place, with as their consequences authoritarianism, corruption, unlawful transactions and impunity, femicides have increased.
In Central America and the northern frontier of Mexico, neoliberalism has created structural conditions for women to be discarded, as being no longer necessary for the army reserve, nor for the purpose of reproduction. Societies that are more egalitarian in socio-economic, racial and gender terms have lower levels of violence, indicating that one of the ways forward is the struggle to reduce inequalities. Organized, women have achieved victories, some of them small, but definitely victories, and thus feminine militancy and the construction of solidarity networks should not be abandoned 29 Cien Saude Colet , 22 1 To deal with these crimes it is necessary to name, categorize and denounce these deaths 30 Munevar D.
Delito de femicidio. Segato 13 The use of this category of accusation would make it possible to make these crimes not subject to any statute of limitations, and able to be taken to international courts of human rights, where it may be possible, [perhaps], at least to see justice done.
One of the models through which hierarchies and norms relating to gender are articulated with questions of health derives from taking the anatomical differences between men and women, especially the genitals, as the basis for a sexual dimorphism which argues incommensurability 31 Laqueur T. Butler J. Such cultural constructs, which have become embedded in the very process, itself, of constitution of western Modernity, can determine conditions of health, relegating people and populations marked by variations of gender and sexuality to a place of unintelligibility, in which their status as humans is not recognized 33 Transgender people: health at the margins of society.
Lancet ; The literature has reported interpersonal violence, discrimination and its effects in disparities in health, with an increasing incidence of problems, especially those who are more sensitive to social and individual vulnerability, such as: issues of mental health and those connected with HIV and Aids; difficulties in access to services and care; inadequacy of services and vulnerability of programs; and, at the limit, fragile recognition of people and populations as holders of rights 33 Mental health of sexual minorities.
A systematic review.
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Int Rev Psychiatry ; 27 5 Global health burden and needs of transgender populations: A review. Am J Public Health ; 10 AIDS Behav ; 19 9 Lancet HIV ; 4 4 :ee Brazilian scientific output on health and LGBTI focuses mostly on HIV and Aids the only subject on which there is systematic and regular production of epidemiological data ; followed by the subject of violence which appears articulated with individual and social vulnerability for infection by HIV ; other adversities including depression, suicidal tendencies and suicide attempts; substance abuse; and difficulties of access to health care and services 39 Barbosa RM, Facchini R.
Cad Saude Publica ; sup 2:SS Physis ; 21 4 Weeks J. Sex, politics and society: the regulation of sexuality since New York: Longman Inc. Drescher J. Bull World Health Organ ; — Conselho Federal de Medicina. In spite of important research efforts that have accompanied and made possible the construction of public policies to combat violence against LGBTI people, there is no systematic and regular production and publication of data on discrimination and aggression against LGBTI people.
However, it remained on the list of mental illnesses until May 17, , when the 43 rd World Health Assembly decided to remove it in the 10 th version of the International Classification of Diseases ICD That version, however, still conserves categories that articulate a connection between homosexuality and mental disorders 45 Because of this, there is a recommendation for elimination of any connection between sexual orientation and disease, in the preparation of the 11 th ICD, which is to be published 46 In the Brazil of the s, the first actions of the nascent homosexual movement included mobilization of a widespread campaign in favor of review of the classification of homosexuality as a pathological condition.
The Federal Medical Council issued an opinion in considering that homosexuality per se is not a pathological condition 47 Demands for anti-discrimination legislation, recognition of homo-affectionate unions, public safety and education policies have been part of the Brazilian movement since it began 48 An important point in the s was the halting of this agenda at the federal level, and intensification of investments in efforts at reversal of rights. There are also initiatives that point in the direction of once again making homosexuality a pathology, attacking the conditions that make it possible to regard these populations as the subjects of rights.
Conselho Federal de Psicologia. The case was based on one of the remaining labels, as a pathology, that remained in ICD 45 This scenario refers to critical points of view that were constructed around or before , on the difficulties of converting public policies into legislation 53 Soc Estado ; 27 2 These advantages, anchored in a context of recognition of sexual and reproductive rights and combat of intolerance under the aegis of the United Nations 54 Correa S.
Bagoas ; Vaggione JM. Pagu ; e Almeida R. The effects of this political context are already making themselves felt in the epidemic of HIV and Aids, with growth in rates of incidence, strongly concentrated in specific social segments and with already high mortality rates. Currently, the prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men is A survey among transvestites and transsexual women in Rio de Janeiro indicates prevalence of The conceptual separation between sex and gender was forged in the context of formalization of the procedures for bodily sex modification in trans and intersex people, was materialized by the notion of gender identity, and was essential for incorporation of the health needs of transvestites and transsexuals.
Widely used, this concept, which is linked to the recontexualization of sex achieved in the 20 th century, and to the technical feasibility of carrying out bodily modifications of sex in trans people, has become the main reference for access to this type of care and has contributed to recognition of trans life choices, especially transsexuality, as a psychiatric category 59 Meyerowitz J. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; The notion of gender as a differentiated component of biological sex, modelled by education, fixed in the first years of life, irreversible and prevalent in relation to the physical characteristics in sexual maturity 60 Murta D.
In this context, they recommended that in intersex babies the sex should be defined based on biological markers, and in older children and adults the reference would be the gender manifested 42 Hausman B. Changing Sex: transsexualism, thechnology and the idea of gender. Durham: Duke University Press; In , Stoller 62 Stoller R.
Sex and Gender. Nova York: Science House; Money J. Sex reassignment as related to hermaprhoditism and transsexualism.
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